used when the treatment consists primarily of advice. In this instance, advice may serve to reassure the patient, advocate preventive measures or recommend self-monitoring

Incisional surgery

 a lesion not amenable to medical therapy may require surgical intervention. This may be in the form of glaucoma, vitreoretinal or orbital surgery

Genetic advice

used with an inherited condition, where advice may be provided to the patient with regard to the mode of inheritance and implications for their family’s ocular health.

Laser treatment

 this icon indicates a condition requiring removal of diseased tissue in the ocular media or retinal treatment. Examples include panretinal photocoagulation, laser YAG (yttrium–aluminium– garnet) posterior capsulotomy or grid laser treatment.


 used when review is a necessary part of treatment of a disease to monitor the development of the disease itself, response of the disease to treatment or possible side effects of drugs. In cases of indeterminate diagnosis, review by another practitioner is another useful alternative.

Blood tests

 indicates the need to order blood tests, including serological tests, to assess disease activity and to aid in diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making


 the ambulance icon indicates that the condition is an ocular emergency requiring urgent treatment. This is usually because the condition is sight or life threatening and there is a risk of rapid progression.


 indicates the need to identify the causative organism in an intraocular infection. A key requirement is for the specimen to be taken before the commencement of antibiotic therapeutics. Laboratory investigations consist of staining and microscopy, culture and establishment of antibiotic

Additional investigations

indicates the need for further investigations to characterize the nature or extent of the condition. Such investigations could include visual fi eld
testing, intravenous fl uorescein angiography, ocular coherence tomography (OCT), electrophysiological investigation and computed tomography


 indicates the need to submit tissue for histopathological evaluation. Special stains may need to be ordered to identify specifi c cell types or pathogenic organisms.

Topical drugs

 the anterior segment of the eye is ideally suited to the delivery of a variety of therapeutic agents by direct topical application. A high concentration of a drug can be readily achieved within the tear fi lm with topical administration. Intraocular penetration is facilitated by the avascular and nonkeratinized nature of the cornea.

Oral medication

 systemic treatment is indicated when adequate drug delivery to the site of action is not achievable with topical medication. Examples include oral antibiotics, corticosteroids, non-steroidal antiinfl ammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesics.

Offi ce procedures

 This icon refers to the treatment of an ocular condition using inoffi ce procedures.

Management icon list