Fig. 9.1

Focal sheathing of inferior retinal arterioles at the site of a previous embolus.

when cerebrovascular or neoplastic disease is suspected.

Medications and advice Essential to the management of atherosclerotic disease is risk factor modification incorporating diet and exercise, smoking cessation and diabetic control. Antiplatelet agents, antihypertensive drugs and lipid-lowering agents may be beneficial. Temporal

arteritis is treated initially with intravenous corticosteroids. Other causes are treated differently (e.g. calcium channel blockers for retinal migraine).

Surgery Carotid endarterectomy for carotid stenosis; cardiac surgery for valvular lesions; surgery and/or chemoradiotherapy for mass lesions.

Amaurosis fugax